Introduction to Programming

A program is a set of instructions that tell the computer to do various things; sometimes the instruction it has to perform depends on what happened when it performed a previous instruction. This section gives an overview of the two main ways in which you can give these instructions, or “commands” as they are usually called. One way uses an interpreter, the other a compiler. As human languages are too difficult for a computer to understand in an unambiguous way, commands are usually written in one or other languages specially designed for the purpose.

Here is the list of Top ten Programming Languages

The above picture is the Ranking provided by IEEE Spectrum. According to that ranking, We have presented this article to you. The chart shows that Python stands out in the list because it was mainly used in machine learning.


Python logo

Python is an object-oriented, high-level language, interpreted, dynamic and multipurpose programming language.

Python is easy to learn yet powerful and versatile scripting language which makes it attractive for Application Development.

Python’s syntax and dynamic typing with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for scripting and rapid application development in many areas.

Python supports multiple programming patterns, including object-oriented programming, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles.

Python is not intended to work on the special area such as web programming. That is why it is known as multipurpose because it can be used with the web, enterprise, 3D CAD etc.

We don’t need to use data types to declare variable because it is dynamically typed so we can write a=10 to declare an integer value in a variable.

Python makes the development and debugging fast because there is no compilation step included in python development and edit-test-debug cycle is very fast.\

2.C Programming:

C language

C language Tutorial with programming approach for beginners and professionals, helps you to understand the C language tutorial easily. Our C tutorial explains each topic with programs.

The C Language is developed for creating system applications that directly interact with the hardware devices such as drivers, kernels etc.

C programming is considered as the base for other programming languages, that is why it is known as mother language.

It can be defined by the following ways:

  1. Mother language
  2. System programming language
  3. Procedure-oriented programming language
  4. Structured programming language
  5. A mid-level programming language.

3.JAVA Programming:

Java language

Java is a programming language and a platform.

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Java is a high level, robust, secure and an object-oriented programming language.

Platform: Any hardware or software environment in which a program runs, is known as a platform. Since Java has its own runtime environment (JRE) and API, it is called platform.

According to Sun, 3 billion devices run Java. There are many devices where Java is currently used. Some of them are as follows:

  1. Desktop Applications such as acrobat reader, media player, antivirus etc.
  2. Web Applications such as, etc.
  3. Enterprise Applications such as banking applications.
  4. Mobile
  5. Embedded System
  6. Smart Card
  7. Robotics
  8. Games etc.

4.C++ Programming:

Image result for c++ language logo

C++ is a general purpose, case-sensitive, the free-form programming language that supports object-oriented, procedural and generic programming.

C++ is a middle-level language, as it encapsulates both high and low-level language features.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs)

C++ supports the object-oriented programming, the four major pillar of object-oriented programming used in C++ are:

  1. Inheritance
  2. Polymorphism
  3. Encapsulation
  4. Abstraction

Usage of C++

With the help of the C++ programming language, we can develop different types of secured and robust applications:

  • Window application
  • Client-Server application
  • Device drivers
  • Embedded firmware etc.

5.C# Programming:

Image result for c# language logo

C# is pronounced as “C-Sharp”. It is an object-oriented programming language provided by Microsoft that runs on.Net Framework.

With the help of C# programming language, we can develop different types of secured and robust applications:

  • Window applications
  • Web applications
  • Distributed applications
  • Web service applications
  • Database applications etc.

C# is approved as a standard by ECMA and ISO. C# is designed for CLI (Common Language Infrastructure). CLI is a specification that describes executable code and runtime environment.

C# programming language is influenced by C++, Java, Eiffel, Modula-3, Pascal etc. languages.

6.R Programming:

Image result for R language logo

R is a programming language and software environment for statistical analysis, graphics representation and reporting. R was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and is currently developed by the R Development Core Team.

The core of R is an interpreted computer language which allows branching and looping as well as modular programming using functions. R allows integration with the procedures written in the C, C++,Net, Python or FORTRAN languages for efficiency.

R is freely available under the GNU General Public License, and pre-compiled binary versions are provided for various operating systems like Linux, Windows and Mac.

R is free software distributed under a GNU-style copyleft and an official part of the GNU project called GNU S.

Evolution of R

R was initially written by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the Department of Statistics of the University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand. R made its first appearance in 1993.

  • A large group of individuals has contributed to R by sending code and bug reports.
  • Since mid-1997 there has been a core group (the “R Core Team”) who can modify the R source code archive.
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Features of R

As stated earlier, R is a programming language and software environment for statistical analysis, graphics representation and reporting. The following are the important features of R −

  • R is a well-developed, simple and effective programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.
  • R has an effective data handling and storage facility,
  • R provides a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, lists, vectors and matrices.
  • R provides a large, coherent and integrated collection of tools for data analysis.
  • R provides graphical facilities for data analysis and display either directly at the computer or printing on the papers.

As a conclusion, R is the world’s most widely used statistics programming language. It’s the # 1 choice of data scientists and supported by a vibrant and talented community of contributors. R is taught in universities and deployed in mission-critical business applications. This tutorial will teach you R programming along with suitable examples in simple and easy steps.

7.Java Script:

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JavaScript is an object-based scripting language that is lightweight and cross-platform.

JavaScript is not compiled but translated. The JavaScript Translator (embedded in the browser) is responsible to translate the JavaScript code.

Where JavaScript is used

JavaScript is used to create interactive websites. It is mainly used for:

  • Client-side validation
  • Dynamic drop-down menus
  • Displaying data and time
  • Displaying pop-up windows and dialog boxes (like an alert dialog box, confirm dialog box and prompt dialog box)
  • Displaying clocks etc.


Image result for php language logo

PHP is an open source, interpreted and object-oriented scripting language i.e. executed at server side. It is used to develop web applications (an application i.e. executed at server side and generates dynamic page).

usages, PHP is a server-side scripting language.

  • PHP is an interpreted language, i.e. there is no need for compilation.
  • PHP is an object-oriented language.
  • PHP is an open-source scripting language.
  • PHP is simple and easy to learn.

PHP Features

There are given many features of PHP.

  • Performance: Script written in PHP executes much faster than those scripts written in other languages such as JSP & ASP.
  • Open Source Software: PHP source code is freely available on the web, you can develop all the version of PHP according to your requirement without paying any cost.
  • Platform Independent: PHP is available for WINDOWS, MAC, LINUX & UNIX operating system. A PHP application developed in one OS can be easily executed in other OS also.
  • Compatibility: PHP is compatible with almost all local servers used today like Apache, IIS etc.
  • Embedded: PHP code can be easily embedded within HTML tags and SCR.
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9. Go:

Go logo


Go is a programming language which is developed by Google in 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. Go is a statically-typed language. Go has a similar syntax to C. It is developed with the vision of high performance and fast development. Go provides type safety, garbage collection, dynamic-typing capability, many advanced built-in types such as variable length arrays and key-value maps etc.

  • Go is modern, fast and comes with a powerful standard library.
  • Go has built-in concurrency.
  • Go uses interfaces as the building blocks of code reusability.

The basic structure of a Go programs consists of following parts:-

  • Package Declaration
  • Import Packages
  • Variables
  • Statements and Expressions
  • Functions
  • Comments.


swift logo

Swift 4 is a new programming language developed by Apple Inc for iOS and OS X development. Swift 4 adopts the best of C and Objective-C, without the constraints of C compatibility.

  • Swift 4 makes use of safe programming patterns.
  • Swift 4 provides modern programming features.
  • Swift 4 provides Objective-C like syntax.
  • Swift 4 is a fantastic way to write iOS and OS X apps.
  • Swift 4 provides seamless access to existing Cocoa frameworks.
  • Swift 4 unifies the procedural and object-oriented portions of the language.
  • Swift 4 does not need a separate library import to support functionalities like input/output or string handling.

Swift 4 uses the same runtime as the existing Obj-C system on Mac OS and iOS, which enables Swift 4 programs to run on many existing iOS 6 and OS X 10.8 platforms.

Swift 4 comes with a playground feature where Swift 4 programmers can write their code and execute it to see the results immediately.

The first public release of Swift was released in 2010. It took Chris Lattner almost 14 years to come up with the first official version, and later, it was supported by many other contributors. Swift 4 has been included in Xcode 6 beta.

Swift designers took ideas from various other popular languages such as Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, and CLU.


“In future, every job will be indirectly linked to digital”-Tanmay Bakshi(IBM WATSON)

“he who thinks he can do anything with codes can really do”-steve jobs(APPLE)

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